保护并改善生物多样性

我们主要在印度尼西亚开展业务,这里有着地球上最丰富的生物多样性。印度尼西亚的热带雨林是地球上成千上万种植物、哺乳动物和鸟类的家园,其中包括像红毛猩猩、老虎和穿山甲等一些濒危物种。我们认识到了棕榈油行业给这些重要的生态系统所带来的压力,而这些生态系统为我们的企业和当地社区提供了重要的服务功能。保护并改善生物多样性和保育自然环境是 GAR首要任务之一。

GAR 正在通过负责任的棕榈油生产实践,应对这些情况,其中包括我们实施的不砍伐森林和零燃烧政策。我们致力于保护珍稀濒危物种。针对捕猎、伤害、拥有和杀戮珍稀濒危物种,GAR采取严格的零容忍政策。我们已经确立高保护价值区域,以及在我们特许经营区和周边地区生存的珍稀濒危物种;我们还采取适当的保护措施,并持续密切监测我们种植园和特许经营区中的生物多样性状况。

我们特许经营区域中的动物种类

根据《印度尼西亚国家保护物种法》的划分,这一表格列出了在我们特许经营区中的濒危物种的完整名录。

受威胁物种列表

科学名称 印度尼西亚文名称 英文名称 家族 保育状态
自然保护联盟 城市 RI 7/1999 号政府法规
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Musang Common Palm Civet Viverridae LC App III -
Arctictis binturong Binturong Binturong Viverridae VU App III D
Helarctos malayanus Beruang madu Sun Bear Ursidae VU App I D
Tragulus napu Napu Greater Oriental Chevrotain Tragulidae LC - D
Tragulus javanicus Kancil/Pelanduk Javan Chevrotain Tragulidae DD - D
Tarsius bancanus saltator Tarsius Horsfield's Tarsier Tarsiidae VU - D
Sus barbatus Babi hutan Beared Pig Suidae VU - -
Ratufa bicolor Jelarang Black Giant Squirrel Sciuridae LC App I D
Lariscus insignis Tupai tiga warna Three-striped Ground Squirrel Sciuridae LC - D
Pteropus vampyrus Kalong besar Large Flying-fox Pteropodidae NT App II -
Mydaus javanensis Segung Sunda Stink-badger Mustelidae LC - D
Lutra lutra Berang-berang Eurasian Otter Mustelidae NT App I -
Manis javanica Trenggiling Sunda Pangolin Manidae CR App I D
Thylogale brunii Kanguru tanah (Lau-lau) Dusky Pademelon Macropodidae VU - D
Dendrolagus goodfellowi Kanguru pohon Goodfelow's Tree Kangaroo Macropodidae EN - D
Nycticebus coucang Malu-malu Greater Slow Loris Lorisidae VU App I D
Hystrix brachyura Landak Malayan porcupine Hystricidae LC - D
Hylobates muelleri Kelampiau Muller Bornean Gibbon Hylobatidae EN - D
Hylobates agilis Owa ungko Agile Gibbon Hylobatidae EN - D
Pongo pygmaeus morio Orangutan Bornean Orangutan Hominidae EN App I D
Prionailurus bengalensis Macan akar Leopard Cat Felidae LC App I D
Pardofelis marmorata Kucing batu Marbled Cat Felidae NT App I D
Neofelis nebulosa Macan dahan Clouded Leopard Felidae VU App I D
Galeopterus variegatus Kubung Sunda Flying Lemur Cynocephalidae LC - -
Rusa unicolor Rusa Sambar Cervidae VU - D
Rusa timorensis Rusa Javan Deer Cervidae VU - D
Muntiacus muntjak Kijang Southern Red Muntjac Cervidae LC - D
Presbytis rubicunda Lutung Merah (Kelasi) Maroon Leaf Monkey Cercopithecidae LC - D
Presbytis melalophos Lutung simpai Sumatran surili Cercopithecidae EN - -
Nasalis larvatus Bekantan Proboscis monkey Cercopithecidae EN App I D
Ictinaetus malayensis Elang hitam Black Eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Ichthyophaga humilis Elang ikan kecil Lesser Brown Bustard Accipitridae NT - D
Henicopernis longicauda Elang ekor panjang Long-tailed Honey-buzzard Accipitridae LC - -
Haliastur indus Elang bondol Brahminy Kite Accipitridae LC - D
Haliaeetus leucogaster Elang bengap White-bellied Sea-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Elanus caeruleus Elang tikus Black-winged Kite Accipitridae LC - D
Butastur liventer Elang cokelat Rufous-winged Buzzard Accipitridae LC - D
Butastur indicus Elang kelabu Grey-faced Buzzard Accipitridae LC - D
Accipiter virgatus Elang Besra Besra Accipitridae LC - D
Varanus salvator Biawak Common Water Monitor Varanidae - App II -
Varanus borneensis Biawak Kalimantan Bornean Monitor Varanidae - App II -
Amyda cartilaginea Labi-labi Southeast Asian Softshell Turtle Trionychidae VU App II -
Python reticulatus Ular sawa Reticulated Python Pythonidae - - -
Morelia viridis Ular sanca hijau Green Tree Python Pythonidae LC - -
Naja sumatrana Ular kobra Equatorial Spitting Cobra Elapidae LC App II -
Crocodylus porosus Buaya muara Salt-water crocodile Crocodylidae LR/LC App I D
Crocodylus novaeguineae Buaya New Guinea Crocodile Crocodylidae LR/LC - -
Tomistoma schlegelii Buaya senyulong False Gharial Crocodylidae VU App I D
Hypsilurus papuensis Kadal Papua Forest Dragon Agamidae LC - -
Gonystylus macrophyllus Ramin Ramin Thymelaeaceae LC App II -
Gonystilus bancanus Ramin Ramin Thymelaeaceae CR App II -
Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk Garu /gaharu /engkaras Lign-aloes Thymelaeaceae CR App II -
Cantleya comiculata Anggrek Hutan Orchid Stemonuraceae VU - -
Bulbophyllum sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Coelogyne sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Cymbidium sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Dendrobium sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume Anggrek tebu Orchid Orchidaceae - - D
Napenthes maxima type green Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes reindwardtiana Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes gracilis Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes papuana Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes bracheata Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae - App II D
Nepenthes bellii Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes mirabilis Lour. Druce Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes andamana Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae - App II D
Nepenthes alata Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LR/LC App II D
Eusideroxylon zwageri T. & B. Ulin Borneo Ironwood Lauraceae VU - -
Koompasia excelsa Menggeris Kempas Fabaceae LR/LC - -
Koompassia malaccensis Kempas Kempas Fabaceae LR/LC - -
Shorea stenoptera Burck Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae EN - D
Shorea smithiana Symington Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea seminis v. Slooten Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae CR - D
Shorea platycarpa Heim Tengkawang / Meranti Light Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea pinanga Scheff Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae - - D
Shorea peltata Tengkawang / Meranti Yellow Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea pallidifolia Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea palembanica Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - D
Shorea macrophylla Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Shorea leprosula Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae NT - -
Shorea lamellata Tengkawang / Meranti White Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea induplicata Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea foxworthyi Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Shorea beccariana Burck Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae - - D
Parashorea lucida Tengkawang / Meranti White Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Hopea sangal Korth. Merawan Merawan, chengal Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Hopea pachycarpa Merawan Merawan Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Hopea mengerawan Miquel Merawan / Meranti batu Merawan Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Hopea ferruginea Merawan Merawan Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Dryobalanops aromatica Kapur Borneo camphor Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Dipterocarpus retusus Keruing gunung Keruing Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Dipterocarpus hasseltii Keruing bunga Keruing Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Keruing hijau Keruing Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Cotylelobium lanceolatum Resak - Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Anisoptera grossivenia Mersawa - Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Durio carinatus Durian Durian Bombacaceae - - -
Durio dulcis Durian Durian Bombacaceae VU - -
Durio kutenjensis Durian Durian Bombacaceae VU - -
Durio zibethinus Pekawai Durian Bombacaceae - - -
Amorphophallus titanum Bunga bangkai Titan Arum Araceae - - D
Dyera costulata Jelutung Borneo Tallow Apocynaceae LR/LC - -
Combretocarpus rotundatus Perepat - Combretaceae VU - -
Icthyophaga ichthyaetus Icthyophaga ichthyaetus Grey-headed Fish-eagle Accipitridae NT - D
Milvus migrans Elang paria Black Kite Accipitridae LC - D
Nisaetus alboniger Elang jambul Blyth's Hawk-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Nisaetus cirrhatus Elang brontok Changeable Hawk-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Spilornis cheela Elang ular bido Crested Serpent-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Alcedo coerulescens Raja udang biru Cerulean Kingfisher Alcedinidae LC - D

教育是 GAR 保育工作的核心。我们对自己的雇员、小农户、供应商和当地社区开展教育,让他们了解保护濒危物种的重要性。

我们自己也在不断地学习。GAR 与非政府组织展开合作,并与知名大学协作开展科研项目,学习如何更好地保护、保存并改善生物多样性。

红毛猩猩保育计划

红毛猩猩在世界自然保护联盟 (IUCN) 濒危物种红色名录中被列为极危濒危物种。红毛猩猩的种群数量在 20 世纪迅速减少,据 IUCN 估计,野生红毛猩猩的数量已经不足 120,000 只。砍伐森林是造成红毛猩猩数量锐减的重要原因。

十几年来,GAR 一直与国际猩猩基金会 (OFI) 展开合作,帮助野生和之前圈养的红毛猩猩恢复正常生活,并将它们放归自然生境。帮助这些红毛猩猩回归正常生活是一项漫长而又艰巨的过程。 从 2011 年起,已经有 116 只红毛猩猩成功地回归自然,到 2021 年计划再放归 44 只红毛猩猩。我们还培训自己的雇员,让他们学会保护并小心应对可能进入我们种植园的红毛猩猩。

生物多样性研究

GAR 相信我们是对近 50 万公顷的棕榈油种植园作为一个负责任的管理者。Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology Research Institute (SMARTRI) 与剑桥大学合作,研究油棕种植园中植物和昆虫物种的多样性。通过这项研究,GAR 希望学习并实施更好的管理策略,来支持我们种植园的生物多样性和生态系统过程。由于昆虫种群正面临着潜在的全球性崩溃 这项研究变得越来越重要。我们的种植园中生存着各种各样的昆虫,它们执行着极其重要的生态任务(如授粉)。作为我们维护种植园生物多样性工作的一部分,我们已经减少了杀虫剂和除草剂的使用,并采用了病虫害综合治理 (IPM) 方法