Protecting and promoting biodiversity

Indonesia, where we mostly operate, has some of the richest biodiversity on Earth. Indonesia’s tropical forests are home to thousands of species of plants, mammals and birds on the planet, including endangered ones such as orangutans, tigers, and pangolins. We recognise the strain the palm oil industry puts on these important ecosystems that also provide vital services our business and local communities rely on. Protecting and promoting biodiversity and conserving the natural environment is one of GAR’s priorities.

GAR is tackling this through responsible palm oil production practices, including our No Deforestation and Zero Burning policies. We are committed to preserving rare and threatened species. GAR has a strict zero-tolerance policy towards hunting, injury, possession and killing of rare and endangered species. We have identified HCV areas and the rare and endangered species within our concessions and surrounding areas. We have appropriate protective measures in place and continue to monitor biodiversity in our plantations and concession areas closely.

This table shows the full list of threatened species identified in our concessions under Indonesia’s National Law of Protected Species.

Threatened species list

Scientific Name Indonesian Name English Name Family Conservation Status
IUCN Cities Government Regulation of the RI NO.7/1999
Paradoxurus hermaphroditus Musang Common Palm Civet Viverridae LC App III -
Arctictis binturong Binturong Binturong Viverridae VU App III D
Helarctos malayanus Beruang madu Sun Bear Ursidae VU App I D
Tragulus napu Napu Greater Oriental Chevrotain Tragulidae LC - D
Tragulus javanicus Kancil/Pelanduk Javan Chevrotain Tragulidae DD - D
Tarsius bancanus saltator Tarsius Horsfield's Tarsier Tarsiidae VU - D
Sus barbatus Babi hutan Beared Pig Suidae VU - -
Ratufa bicolor Jelarang Black Giant Squirrel Sciuridae LC App I D
Lariscus insignis Tupai tiga warna Three-striped Ground Squirrel Sciuridae LC - D
Pteropus vampyrus Kalong besar Large Flying-fox Pteropodidae NT App II -
Mydaus javanensis Segung Sunda Stink-badger Mustelidae LC - D
Lutra lutra Berang-berang Eurasian Otter Mustelidae NT App I -
Manis javanica Trenggiling Sunda Pangolin Manidae CR App I D
Thylogale brunii Kanguru tanah (Lau-lau) Dusky Pademelon Macropodidae VU - D
Dendrolagus goodfellowi Kanguru pohon Goodfelow's Tree Kangaroo Macropodidae EN - D
Nycticebus coucang Malu-malu Greater Slow Loris Lorisidae VU App I D
Hystrix brachyura Landak Malayan porcupine Hystricidae LC - D
Hylobates muelleri Kelampiau Muller Bornean Gibbon Hylobatidae EN - D
Hylobates agilis Owa ungko Agile Gibbon Hylobatidae EN - D
Pongo pygmaeus morio Orangutan Bornean Orangutan Hominidae EN App I D
Prionailurus bengalensis Macan akar Leopard Cat Felidae LC App I D
Pardofelis marmorata Kucing batu Marbled Cat Felidae NT App I D
Neofelis nebulosa Macan dahan Clouded Leopard Felidae VU App I D
Galeopterus variegatus Kubung Sunda Flying Lemur Cynocephalidae LC - -
Rusa unicolor Rusa Sambar Cervidae VU - D
Rusa timorensis Rusa Javan Deer Cervidae VU - D
Muntiacus muntjak Kijang Southern Red Muntjac Cervidae LC - D
Presbytis rubicunda Lutung Merah (Kelasi) Maroon Leaf Monkey Cercopithecidae LC - D
Presbytis melalophos Lutung simpai Sumatran surili Cercopithecidae EN - -
Nasalis larvatus Bekantan Proboscis monkey Cercopithecidae EN App I D
Ictinaetus malayensis Elang hitam Black Eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Ichthyophaga humilis Elang ikan kecil Lesser Brown Bustard Accipitridae NT - D
Henicopernis longicauda Elang ekor panjang Long-tailed Honey-buzzard Accipitridae LC - -
Haliastur indus Elang bondol Brahminy Kite Accipitridae LC - D
Haliaeetus leucogaster Elang bengap White-bellied Sea-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Elanus caeruleus Elang tikus Black-winged Kite Accipitridae LC - D
Butastur liventer Elang cokelat Rufous-winged Buzzard Accipitridae LC - D
Butastur indicus Elang kelabu Grey-faced Buzzard Accipitridae LC - D
Accipiter virgatus Elang Besra Besra Accipitridae LC - D
Varanus salvator Biawak Common Water Monitor Varanidae - App II -
Varanus borneensis Biawak Kalimantan Bornean Monitor Varanidae - App II -
Amyda cartilaginea Labi-labi Southeast Asian Softshell Turtle Trionychidae VU App II -
Python reticulatus Ular sawa Reticulated Python Pythonidae - - -
Morelia viridis Ular sanca hijau Green Tree Python Pythonidae LC - -
Naja sumatrana Ular kobra Equatorial Spitting Cobra Elapidae LC App II -
Crocodylus porosus Buaya muara Salt-water crocodile Crocodylidae LR/LC App I D
Crocodylus novaeguineae Buaya New Guinea Crocodile Crocodylidae LR/LC - -
Tomistoma schlegelii Buaya senyulong False Gharial Crocodylidae VU App I D
Hypsilurus papuensis Kadal Papua Forest Dragon Agamidae LC - -
Gonystylus macrophyllus Ramin Ramin Thymelaeaceae LC App II -
Gonystilus bancanus Ramin Ramin Thymelaeaceae CR App II -
Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk Garu /gaharu /engkaras Lign-aloes Thymelaeaceae CR App II -
Cantleya comiculata Anggrek Hutan Orchid Stemonuraceae VU - -
Bulbophyllum sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Coelogyne sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Cymbidium sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Dendrobium sp. Anggrek Hutan Orchid Orchidaceae - App II -
Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume Anggrek tebu Orchid Orchidaceae - - D
Napenthes maxima type green Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes reindwardtiana Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes gracilis Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes papuana Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes bracheata Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae - App II D
Nepenthes bellii Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes mirabilis Lour. Druce Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LC App II D
Nepenthes andamana Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae - App II D
Nepenthes alata Kantong semar / Akar entuyut Tropical Pitcher Plant Nepenthaceae LR/LC App II D
Eusideroxylon zwageri T. & B. Ulin Borneo Ironwood Lauraceae VU - -
Koompasia excelsa Menggeris Kempas Fabaceae LR/LC - -
Koompassia malaccensis Kempas Kempas Fabaceae LR/LC - -
Shorea stenoptera Burck Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae EN - D
Shorea smithiana Symington Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea seminis v. Slooten Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae CR - D
Shorea platycarpa Heim Tengkawang / Meranti Light Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea pinanga Scheff Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae - - D
Shorea peltata Tengkawang / Meranti Yellow Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea pallidifolia Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea palembanica Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - D
Shorea macrophylla Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Shorea leprosula Tengkawang / Meranti Red Meranti Dipterocarpaceae NT - -
Shorea lamellata Tengkawang / Meranti White Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea induplicata Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Shorea foxworthyi Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Shorea beccariana Burck Tengkawang / Meranti Balau Dipterocarpaceae - - D
Parashorea lucida Tengkawang / Meranti White Meranti Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Hopea sangal Korth. Merawan Merawan, chengal Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Hopea pachycarpa Merawan Merawan Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Hopea mengerawan Miquel Merawan / Meranti batu Merawan Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Hopea ferruginea Merawan Merawan Dipterocarpaceae CR - -
Dryobalanops aromatica Kapur Borneo camphor Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Dipterocarpus retusus Keruing gunung Keruing Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Dipterocarpus hasseltii Keruing bunga Keruing Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Dipterocarpus grandiflorus Keruing hijau Keruing Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Cotylelobium lanceolatum Resak - Dipterocarpaceae VU - -
Anisoptera grossivenia Mersawa - Dipterocarpaceae EN - -
Durio carinatus Durian Durian Bombacaceae - - -
Durio dulcis Durian Durian Bombacaceae VU - -
Durio kutenjensis Durian Durian Bombacaceae VU - -
Durio zibethinus Pekawai Durian Bombacaceae - - -
Amorphophallus titanum Bunga bangkai Titan Arum Araceae - - D
Dyera costulata Jelutung Borneo Tallow Apocynaceae LR/LC - -
Combretocarpus rotundatus Perepat - Combretaceae VU - -
Icthyophaga ichthyaetus Icthyophaga ichthyaetus Grey-headed Fish-eagle Accipitridae NT - D
Milvus migrans Elang paria Black Kite Accipitridae LC - D
Nisaetus alboniger Elang jambul Blyth's Hawk-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Nisaetus cirrhatus Elang brontok Changeable Hawk-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Spilornis cheela Elang ular bido Crested Serpent-eagle Accipitridae LC - D
Alcedo coerulescens Raja udang biru Cerulean Kingfisher Alcedinidae LC - D

Education is at the heart of GAR’s conservation efforts. We educate our employees, smallholders, suppliers, and local communities on the importance of protecting endangered species.

We are also learning. GAR works with NGOs and conducts research in collaboration with reputable universities to learn how to better protect, preserve and promote biodiversity.

Orangutan conservation

Orangutans are classified as Critically Endangered in the IUCN’s Red List of Threatened Species. Orangutan populations have declined rapidly in the 20th century, and IUCN estimates that there are fewer than 120,000 orangutans remaining in the wild. Deforestation has played a big part in this decline.

For over a decade, GAR has collaborated with the Orangutan Foundation International (OFI) to help rehabilitate and release wild and ex-captive orangutans back into their natural habitats. Rehabilitating these orangutans is a long and challenging process. Since 2011,116 orangutans have been successfully released with 44 more releases targeted by 2021. We also train our employees to protect and carefully handle any orangutans that may enter our estates.

Biodiversity research

GAR believes in being responsible stewards of our almost half a million hectares of palm oil estates. Sinar Mas Agro Resources and Technology Research Institute (SMARTRI) is collaborating with Cambridge University to research the diversity of plant and insect species in oil palm plantations. Through this research GAR hopes to learn and implement better management strategies to support biodiversity and ecosystem processes in our plantations.

This research is becoming increasingly crucial as insect populations are facing a potential global collapse. Our estates house a wide variety of insects which perform critical ecological tasks such as pollination. As part of our efforts to maintain biodiversity in our plantations, we have reduced the use of pesticides and herbicides and adopted an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach.